# Post-nonlinear causal models

## Algorithm Introduction

Causal discovery based on the post-nonlinear (PNL 1) causal models. If you would like to apply the method to more than two variables, we suggest you first apply the PC algorithm and then use pair-wise analysis in this implementation to find the causal directions that cannot be determined by PC.

## Usage

```
from causallearn.search.FCMBased.PNL.PNL import PNL
pnl = PNL()
p_value_foward, p_value_backward = pnl.cause_or_effect(data_x, data_y)
```

## Parameters

**data_x**: input data (n, 1), n is the sample size.

**data_y**: output data (n, 1), n is the sample size.

## Returns

**pval_forward**: p value in the x->y direction.

**pval_backward**: p value in the y->x direction.

- 1
Zhang, K., & Hyvärinen, A. (2009, June). On the Identifiability of the Post-Nonlinear Causal Model. In 25th Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2009) (pp. 647-655). AUAI Press.